What is Neuroscience?

(Adapted from Neurons to Neighborhoods/The Science of Early Childhood Development, Shonkoff & Phillips, National Academy Press, 2001)

  1. It is the continuous interaction between biology and experience.
  2. It is the childrearing beliefs and practices by cultures that are designed to promote healthy adaptation.
  3. It is the intrinsic human drive to explore and master one’s environment.
  4. It is human relationships as the building blocks of healthy development.
  5. It is the individual differences among children that make it difficult to know if the variations they show are temporary or indicate a persistent impairment.
  6. It is the interplay between an individual’s strengths and weaknesses.
  7. It is the impact of poverty and poor nutrition.
  8. It is molecular and behavioral genetics.
  9. It involves understanding basic biological processes.
  10. It includes neurochemical and neuro-endocrine factors.
  11. It studies prosocial and antisocial tendencies.
  12. It studies planned and sustained attention.
  13. It studies responses to stress.
  14. It studies the mechanisms involved with birth outcomes and developmental
    disabilities.